Nevertheless, many officials and trade experts say that the USMCA`s greatest strength is its “modernization chapters,” which are in part an update on how the Internet has changed trade since NAFTA began in 1994. The pact is far from a definite success. It also ends amid growing trade tensions with Canada and widespread concern about Mexico`s ability to impose occupational health and safety. In addition, all the economic benefits and job gains are still years away. Although President Donald Trump warned Canada on September 1 that he would exclude them from a new trade deal if Canada did not comply with its demands, it is not clear that the Trump administration has the power to do so without congressional approval. :34-6 According to reports by the Congressional Research Service (CRS), one was published in 2017 and another on July 26, 2018, it is likely that President Trump would need congressional approval for fundamental changes to NAFTA before the changes are implemented. :34-6 Mr. Trudeau and Canadian Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland have expressed their readiness to join the agreement if it is in Canada`s interest.  Freeland returned prematurely from his diplomatic trip to Europe and cancelled a planned visit to Ukraine to participate in the NAFTA negotiations in Washington at the end of August, D.C.  According to an August 31 Canadian press, published in the Ottawa Citizen, key supply management topics, Chapter 19, drugs, cultural exemption, sunset clause and de minimis thresholds.  The agreement is described differently by each signatory – in the United States, it is called the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA);   in Canada, it is officially known as the Canada-U.S.-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA) in English and the Canada-U.S.-Mexico Agreement (ACEUM) in French;  and in Mexico, tratado is called tratado between México, Estados Unidos y Canadé (T-MEC).
  The agreement is sometimes referred to as “New NAFTA” with respect to the previous trilateral agreement for the successor, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Growing objections within Member States to U.S. trade policy and various aspects of the USMCA have had an impact on the signing and ratification process. Mexico said it would not sign the USMCA if tariffs on steel and aluminum were maintained.  Based on the results of the November 6, 2018 U.S. election, it has been speculated that the greater power of Democrats in the House of Representatives could jeopardize the passage of the USMCA agreement.   Bill Pascrell, a senior Democrat, argued for changes to the USMCA to pass Congress.  Republicans have opposed the USMCA provisions that impose labour rights on LGBTQ and pregnant workers.  Forty Republicans in Congress have asked Mr. Trump not to sign an agreement that includes “the unprecedented integration of sexual orientation and the language of gender identity.” As a result, Trump ultimately signed a revised version that required each nation only to “policies it deems appropriate to protect workers from discrimination in the workplace” and said the United States would not be required to introduce additional non-discrimination laws.  The Canadian government expressed concern about the changes that have occurred under the USMCA agreement.  USMCA countries must comply with IMF standards to avoid exchange rate manipulation.