The World Bank is an important player in the development, support and implementation of anti-poverty policies and promotes the effective use of the richest wealth of the poor: work. Construction processes throughout Europe are generally based on manual labour (Girmscheid & Scheublin, 2010) and, therefore, the promotion of the construction industry is a direct response to the growth of the most developed countries, including East and Central Africa. (World Bank, 1990). The Bank has also supported and encouraged the development and implementation of several institutional frameworks to make project acquisition and management processes a success in the construction industry. The construction sector is an important driver of growth (Radelet, 2007, p. 15). This position was supported by a contribution to the US House of Representatives in 1926, which asked the government to grant low-interest loans for construction work; “The construction sector employs more labour, brings more materials. It creates more purchasing power; and with this launch, it will penetrate into trades and the general price level. (U.S. House of Representatives (1926), pp. 578-79.cited in Wheelock, 1992). Gerald Mabveka (2014) notes that it is customary for purchasing entities to contain payment terms that are unfair to SMEs. SMEs are forced to accept these conditions, given that over the years, SMEs are under pressure with a decrease in construction volume and sometimes make risky “suicide” offers with low or no profit margins, with the sole aim of maintaining the workflow and staying in business (Lip, quoted in Amoako, K.B., 2011) In Malaysia, under the contractual terms, that an employer has neglected or failed to pay the contractor if the contractor does not receive payment for a period of 2 to 3 months after the period of requirement of its Judi S.S.
et al. certificate (2010). Based on the CIDB studies (CIDB) of the Construction Industry Development Board of Malaysia (2006) (Emenke, F.O., 2010), both contractors and consultants agreed that they often suffer from late payments. (ii) Bidders must also demonstrate, to the satisfaction of the employer, that they have sufficient sources of funding to meet cash flow requirements for work in progress and for future contractual obligations. More recently, this position has always been held to be true, with cridland (2009) noting that the UK construction industry makes a considerable contribution to the economy. Investments in quality transport infrastructure are key to ensuring that the UK remains competitive. It should be noted that in Kenya, due to the chosen design, road projects of 30 km and more and other construction works last more than two years, and therefore the requirement that an engineer has carried out 10 projects of this type means that the expert must have worked on such work for more than 20 years. The experience in Kenya is that most civil engineers obtain their registration as qualified engineers after an average of 8 years of postgraduate experience and would be qualified as such to perform their first job at the age of 33, while the criteria listed in the table below would not be met until the age of 55. Framework for reducing incidents and degrees of payment paralysis The construction industry is considered an important economic driver in India and the vast majority of new jobs created between 2004 and 2010 were in the construction sector and have maintained an average growth rate of 9.8% over the past ten years and reached a peak of 11.8% (Government of India Planning Commission, 2011) On the streets, each layer is measured in length, width and depth, with each excavation for plans before and after excavation being measured with authorization forms signed by all parties.
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